Skin cancer 101: Signs, Prevention, and Causes

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Hi my name is Rich Joseph I'm a medical oncologist at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville Florida my clinical expertise is in cutaneous malignancies and cute including melanoma and other skin cancers

and I also treat genitourinary malignancies as well so melanoma is distinct from other skin cancers and that it is usually a proliferation of pigmented cells although not always a

melanoma can also originate in different parts of the mucosal tract including the head and

neck as well as the GI tract as well as on the bottoms of the palms and the soles which usually

doesn't occur in other types of skin cancers you know melanoma is the most deadly form of

skin cancer because it is the cancer that is most likely to spread to other organs other types of skin cancers rarely spread from outside of the surface of the skin and the ability of the

melanoma to metastasize makes it the most deadly in a stage one melanoma has a cure rate of

 about 95% so if you catch it early that's great a thicker melanoma is something that is that is

 still in the skin but has not spread to the lymph nodes or the rest of the body that still has a

 pretty high chance of cure of catching it early somewhere in the range of 70 to 80% chance

of cure a stage three melanoma is when the melanoma has escaped from the skin and gone to

the lymph nodes and we divide stage three in the stage three a B and C depending on how

many lymph nodes are involved in the cure rate there drops all the way down as low as 20% if

 many lymph nodes are involved and as high as 60 70 % if only one lymph node is involved a stage four melanoma is a melanoma that is left the lymph nodes and gone to the to to distant

 parts of the body and there the survival is much less the overall average median survival is

you know we're talking in the order of months to maybe a year or so however those numbers

are getting better with our newer therapies I see melanoma patients usually at two phases the

first phase is if they are diagnosed and then they have a lymph node that is positive

traditionally the lymph node is removed by the surgeon and then they come to see me to help

them prevent the melanoma from recurrent in the rest of their body and at Mayo Clinic we

have several clinical studies that are are geared towards preventing melanoma from being

spreading to the rest of the body which we call stage four melanoma VORs rather than stage

three melanoma does predominantly exist in older population however the amount of

numbers in the younger population is much higher than other types of lethal cancers oh we

still have a long way to go to eradicate melanoma or completely cure the majority of the

patients but before the last five years we were talking about getting responses in helping

maybe five to ten percent of patients now we're moving that bar up to anywhere to 20 to 50 percent of patients of causing them long-term remissions which is a huge step forward but

obviously leaves us with another 50% to improve upon as well so a long long way to go but we've come a long way. Next 14 Vivid Signs of [Breast Cancer] You Cannot Ignore

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